Before the Republic of Indonesia has it proclamation, South Sulawesi is include of a number of independent kingdoms and dwelt by four etnic, that is: Bugis, Makassar, Mandar and Torajans. There three big empires that have big influence, those are Luwu, Gowa, and Bone, which at XVI century and XVII century reach their glorious, and has trade relation with Europeans, India, China, Malay, and Arab.
After the independence, there is the constitution number 21 in 1950, which stated that South Sulawesi become an autonomous Sulawesi Province. In 1960 become an autonomous South Sulawesi and Southeast based on the constitution number 13 in 1960. The separation of South Sulawesi from the autonomous area of South Sulawesi and Southeast was declared by the constitution number 13 in 1964, so that it become the South Sulawesi Autonomous area of South Sulawesi.
Ujung Pandang is the main city on Sulawesi, originally known as Makassar. The court of the kings of Gowa was nearby. The people here are called Makassarese. The Bugis people are famous as sailors, and founded trade empires of their own. The most famous Bugis leaders were kings of Bone, which is called Watampone today. Bugis settlements have scattered as far as Kalimantan and Riau. The kings of Gowa and Bone did much to spread Islam through the area. The island of Butung or Buton did not submit to the Dutch until 1908. The Toraja people are the original inhabitants of the central part of Sulawesi. They are known for their unusual customs; today most are Christians. The Toraja also resisted the Dutch until the first decade of the 20th Century.
UJUNG PANDANG – MAKASAR
The provincial capital was Ujung Pandang and had an important role as the gateway to the former kingdom of Gowa and now to the whole province because of its natural harbor. The center of business and administration, the city has expanded outwards from its most important landmark that is ‘Ujung Pandang fortress’ that faces to the sea front. One of the eleven fortresses of the kingdom, it was built in 1545 during the reign of Tuni Pallanga, the 10th Gowa sultan. When Gowa capitulated to the colonial forces under the treaty of Bungaya in 1667, the fort was renamed Rotterdam by Admiral Spellman who constructed bastions and buildings of typical Dutch architecture making it become the center of the civilian government, including a church on its premises. One of the best preserved forts of that area, only the thick walls of earth and stones remain of the original complex, now occupied by educational and cultural offices of the provincial government. The two buildings house Ujung Pandang State Museum, exhibiting archaeological and historical objects, manuscripts, numismatics, ceramics and ethnic costumes and ornaments.
Visiting hours of the museum are from 8.00 a.m. until 4.00 p.m. daily except on Mondays and public holidays. The fort itself is open daily till 17.00 p.m. Dedicated as the center of culture, the Conservatory of Dance and Music is located here and on the open stage in the center of the fort, dance classes for children can be seen in progress.
Though unmarked, but of historical interest is the dungeon where one of Indonesia’s most prominent heroes in the struggle for freedom, Prince Diponegoro was imprisoned for 27 years. Prince Diponegoro was buried in a family plot in the middle of the city on a street named after him: Diponegoro Street. The family tree displayed on the wall indicated that none of his descendants returned to the courts of Yogyakarta, instead, they settled in Ujung Pandang and their custodian is a great-grandson.
Mr. Bundt, a Dutchman, has in his private residence at Mochtar Lutfi Street 15, a collection of seashells and corals. His spacious garden is filled with rare Indonesian orchids and hybrids. A visit is worthwhile and several of the collections are on sale. Mr. Bundt is registered in the Sander’s List of London as an expert in orchid cultivation.
Now on, the capital of South Sulawesi is Makasar regency. Makasa city is known as ‘Angin Mamiri’, because its soft wind. It is also known with its Losari Beach, which has beautiful beach. With the 22 – 33o C temperature and 175,77 Km2 width of area, Makasar city is located at 5o 30′ 18 – 5o 14′ 49” south latitudes and 119o 18′ 97” – 119o 32′ 3” Longitudes. Makasar boundaries is:
North side: Pangkep regency
South side: Gowa regency
East side: Maros regency
West regency: Makasar strait
Sunsets in the Makassar Strait can be viewed from a promenade at Penghibur Street or the Paotere anchorage in the north end of the city where the Phinisi schooners are berthed. Across the harbor is Kayangan Island, which can be reached in 15 minutes by ferry. A popular recreational resort for the people of the city, there is entertainment in the evening and on Sundays
• UJUNG PANDANG – MAKASAR
Paotere Anchorage ,Samalona Island, Sungguminasa ,The Tomb of Sultan Hasanuddin, Malino, Bulukumba Mampu Cave, Bantimurung ,Leang-Leang Historic Park
• PARE-PARE,Sengkang ,Soppeng ,Bone, Enrekang ,Polewali -,Mamasa (Polmas)
Sangalla, Lemo ,Londa ,Kete Kesu ,Marante ,Makale ,rantepao ,Suaya (King Suaya Graveyard) To’Barana, Sa’Dang ,Palawa Nanggala ,Buntao ,Tondon, Batutumonga, Lokomata ,Makula ,Bari, Buntu ,Kalando ,Penanian, Karassik