Maluku Utara

HISTORY OF NORTH MOLUCCAS (MALUKU)
Formerly known as the Moluccas, these islands are the original Spice Islands, which in the 16th and 17th centuries lured the major seafaring nations of Europe to come to trade and to establish their power and influence in this part of the East.

Chinese annals of the Tang dynasty from around the middle of the 7th century A.D. make mention of a land named Mi-li-ku. The 14th century Javanese manuscript ‘Nagarakertagama’ mentions the name Maloko, meaning the island of Ternate, part of this province, which in the 17th century was known to the Portuguese as Moluquo.

It was Nicoli de Conti, however, who in 1440 revealed the existence of the Spice Islands to the Europeans. Using his information, Fra Maura drew his world map, and soon the race to the East began. In 1511, the Portuguese built their first fort in the area on the island of Ternate and established their monopoly of the clove trade.

The Spanish also came, but posed little trouble to the Portuguese. The Dutch, who arrived in 1599, on the other hand, proved to be their toughest contestants in the quest for Maluku’s treasures. Armed conflicts broke out, taking a toll not only between the two rival European powers, but also among the local populations. The Dutch finally emerged as winners and established their trade monopoly with iron hand. Whole villages were razed to the ground and thousands of islanders died in the so-called Hongi expeditions launched by the Dutch to maintain their trade monopoly.

The British occupied Maluku for a brief period during the Napoleonic war between England and France. Dutch rule was restored in 1814, leading to a new rebellion under Matulessi, which the Dutch suppressed with difficulty. The compulsory cultivation of spices was abolished in Maluku only in 1863.

Traces of that turbulent period in Maluku’s history can still be found on a number of islands. However, Maluku’s great attraction for present-day visitors is its sea gardens, beaches and the beauty of the land. Music and dances and hybrid culture in general, are among the strong tourist drawing cards. Maluku Utara or North Maluku became a separate province from Maluku on January 1, 2000. Fish and other sea products are nowadays Maluku’s major sources of revenue, but nickel, oil, manganese and timber also contribute to the province’s wealth.

TERNATE
Ternate is an island and town in the Maluku Islands (Moluccas) of eastern Indonesia, located off the west coast of the larger island of Halmahera. In the pre-colonial era, Ternate was the dominant political and economic power over most of the “Spice Island” of Maluku. Today, Ternate is the largest town in North Maluku province.

Ternate on the north Seram is a center of power and communication. It is the second most important town in Maluku after Ambon. Two-third of the island’s people live in Ternate town, the business and market center of the whole region. A visit to the market will give an idea of some of the area’s products. Fort Oranje, built by the Dutch and currently being used by the Indonesian police and military is open to the public. Ternate Island

Ternate, an island off the west coast of Halmahera, is just 15 sq. km in size but it offers a treasure of sights and experiences. There is an active volcano named Gamalama, two lakes, an old Sultan’s palace, a picturesque port and several good beaches.

HISTORY
Up until the Ducth completed the colonization of Maluku in the nineteenth century, the sultans of Ternate ruled an extensive empire that at the time stretched across the archipelago, from Sulawesi to Papua. The peak of its power came near the end of the sixteenth century, under Sultan Baabullah, when it had influence over most of the eastern part of Sulawesi, Ambon and Seram area, and Papua parts. It frequently engaged in fierce competition for control of its periphery with the nearby sultanate of Tidore. According to historian Leonard Andaya, Ternate’s “dualistic” rivalry with Tidore is a dominant theme in the early history of the Maluku Islands

In part as a result of its trade-dependent culture, Ternate was one of the earliest places in the region, which Islam spread, probably coming from Java in the late fifteenth century. Initially, the faith was restricted to Ternate’s small ruling family, and spread only slowly to the rest of the population. The first Europeans who stay on Ternate were part of the Portuguese expedition of Francisco Serrao out of Melake, which was shipwrecked near Seram and rescued by local residents. Sultan Abu Lais of Ternate heard of their stranding, and, seeing a chance to ally himself with a powerful foreign nation he had heard about, he had brought them to Ternate in 1512. The Portuguese were permitted to build a fort on the island, but the relations were strained from the start. Portuguese inhabitants of the fort and felt free to appropriate supplies from the Ternate population without payment, and responded violently when the local population objected. Portugal was finally expelled in 1575 amid Ternate anger with zealous Christian missionaries, and Portuguese meddling with the Ternate throne. At the time, European power in the region was very weak; after the expulsion of the Portuguese, Ternate was able to substantially increase its military reach across the region for a time.

Spanish forces to capture the former Portuguese fort in 1606 deported the Ternate Sultan and his entourage to Manila. In 1607 the Dutch came back in Ternate with Ternateans help built a fort in Malayo. The island was divided between two powers: the Spaniards were allied with Tidore and the Dutch with their Ternaten allies. For the Ternaten rulers, the Dutch were a useful, if not particularly welcome, presence that gave them military advantages against Tidore and the Spanish. Particularly under Sultan Hamzah (r. 1627-1648), Ternate expanded its territory and strengthened its control over the periphery. Dutch influence over the kingdom was limited, though Hamzah and his son and successor, Sultan Mandar Syah (r. 1648-1675) did concede some regions to the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in exchange for help the controlling rebellions there. The Spaniards remained in Ternate and Tidore until 1663. In the eighteenth century Ternate was the site of a VOC governorship, which attempted to control all trade in the northern Moluccas.

By the nineteenth century, the spice trade had declined substantially. Hence, the region was less central to the Netherlands colonial state, but the Dutch maintained a presence in the region in order to prevent another colonial power from occupying it. After the Dutch government in 1800 nationalized the VOC, Ternate became the part of Moluccas Government (Gouvernement der Molukken). British were forces to occupied Ternate in 1810 before being returned to Dutch control in 1817. In 1824 became the capital of a residency (administrative region) covering Halmahera, the entire west coast of New Guinea, and Sulawesi central east coast. By 1867 all of Dutch-occupied New Guinea had been added to the residency, but then its region was gradually transferred to Ambon (Amboina) before being dissolved into that residency in 1922.

Like the rest of Indonesia, Japanese forces occupied Ternate during World War II; the Navy governed eastern Indonesia. After Japan surrendered in August 1945 and Indonesia declared independence, Ternate was reoccupied in early November 1945 by Allied forces intending to return Indonesia to Dutch control. It became part of Maluku province when Indonesia became independent.

TIDORE
Tidore Island is a bit larger than Ternate. Frequent boats leave Bastion to Rum, where there is a Sunday market. Tidore is dominated by Kiematubu volcano. A paved road goes around most of the island, but beyond the main tone of Soa Siu, the surface degenerates considerably. The best views of Ternate are from Tidore’s north coast.

HISTORY
Tidore is an island in the eastern Indonesia of Maluku Island, just west of the larger island of Halmahera. In the pre-colonial era, Tidore was a major regional political and economic power, and a fierce rival of nearby Ternate, just to the north. The sultans of Tidore ruled most of southern Halmahera, and, at times, controlled Buru, Ambon and many of the islands off the coast of Papua. Tidore established a loose alliance with the Spanish in the sixteenth century, and Spain had several forts on the island. While there was much mutual distrust between the Tidorese and the Spaniards, for Tidore the Spanish presence was helpful in resisting incursions by their enemy Ternate, as well as the Dutch forces that had a base on that island.

As Spanish strength in the region diminished before their eventual withdrawal from the region in 1663, Tidore became one of the most independent kingdoms in the region, resisting direct control by Dutch East India Company (VOC). Particularly under Sultan Saifuddin (1657-1689), the Tidore court was skilled at using Dutch payment for spices for gifts to strengthen traditional ties with Tidore’s traditional periphery. As a result he was widely respected by many local populations, and had little need to call on the Dutch for military help in governing the kingdom, as Ternate frequently did.

Tidore remained an independent kingdom, albeit with frequent Dutch interference, until the late eighteenth century. Like Ternate, Tidore allowed the Dutch spice eradication program (extirpative) to proceed in its territories. This program, indeed to strengthen the Dutch spice monopoly by limiting production to a few places, impoverished Tidore and weakened its control over its periphery.

HALMAHERA ISLAND

This island lies to the east of Ternate, separated only by a narrow strait. It is a mountainous island, still largely covered with forests. The coastlines are white sand and coral reefs are found in its waters. Offering a beautiful spectacle, Mount Mamuya (930 m) spews burning lava from time to time, adding to the allure of this island.
Pearl oyster breeding farms on Mangaliho Island can be reach by motorboat.

North Halmahera
Geographically, North Halmahera regency is stay at 10,57′-20, 0′ north latitude and 1280,17′-1280, 18′ east longitude. North Halmahera regency declared on 31 May 2003 with its capital is Tobelo. It also has new districts and villages. Nine districts were developed to 22 districts and 174 villages become 260 villages. The wide this regency is 24.983,32 km2 that contains of 19.536,02 km2 (78%) sea area and 5.447,30 km2 (22%) land area. There are 76 islands, 19 islands have no named. Almost, every island has its beautiful panorama. The small islands with its white sand beach, the beautiful sea garden with its various fishes, various flora and fauna and its culture, can also find the historical sites in World War II in this region.

The number of North Halmahera regency in 2003 is 169.440 of men, 75 % is farmer and fisherman. North Halmahera is one of agarics with its nature potency that contains of field sector, gardening, plantation, fish, maritime, breeding, mining, small industry, and tourism.

MOROTAI ISLAND

Morotai Island was the site of a major battle during World War II. The landing strips built by the Allied forces in Morotai could handle today’s jumbo jet, but serve only small Twin Otters. Although much of the relics from the war were carted off to the maws if the Krakatau steel mill, in Java, there are steill remnants of war machinery.

Morotai Island, lying to the north of Halmahera, was an important air-base during world War II, first for the Allies and later for the Japanese until its recapture near the end of the war. The ghosts of war still linger in this area, where many wrecks of aircraft and rusting guns lie abandoned in the bushes. The coral reefs here are not easily forgotten. Wayabula, Berebere, Busus-busu, Sangowo and Daruba are villages on the beach.

 

TOURISM SECTOR

The old sultan’s palace in Ternate town is now a museum. In the vicinity are the ruins of Old Portuguese, Spanish and Dutch forts. The remnants of the Dutch Fort Orange are right in town. About five kilometers west of the town, on the slope of a 1,715-meter tall volcano in the middle of the island, is Afo, with its giant clove tree, said to be more than 350 years old.

HALMAHERA ISLAND
This island lies to the east of Ternate, separated only by a narrow strait. It is a mountainous island, still largely covered with forests. The coastlines are white sand and coral reefs are found in its waters. Offering a beautiful spectacle, Mount Mamuya (930 m) spews burning lava from time to time, adding to the allure of this island.
Pearl oyster breeding farms on Mangaliho Island can be reach by motorboat.

North Halmahera
Geographically, North Halmahera regency is stay at 10,57′-20, 0′ north latitude and 1280,17′-1280, 18′ east longitude. North Halmahera regency declared on 31 May 2003 with its capital is Tobelo. It also has new districts and villages. Nine districts were developed to 22 districts and 174 villages become 260 villages. The wide this regency is 24.983,32 km2 that contains of 19.536,02 km2 (78%) sea area and 5.447,30 km2 (22%) land area. There are 76 islands, 19 islands have no named. Almost, every island has its beautiful panorama. The small islands with its white sand beach, the beautiful sea garden with its various fishes, various flora and fauna and its culture, can also find the historical sites in World War II in this region.

The number of North Halmahera regency in 2003 is 169.440 of men, 75 % is farmer and fisherman. North Halmahera is one of agarics with its nature potency that contains of field sector, gardening, plantation, fish, maritime, breeding, mining, small industry, and tourism.

Cakalele Dance

Cakalele Dance is war dance that often held as a dance to greet the guest who visit this region or held in traditional event. The Cakalele men dancers usually used chopper and ‘salawaku’, while the women dancers used ‘Lenso’ (hand kerchief).

Tagalaya Beach

White sand and Mangroves jungles that grew around it, and become its uniquely. There is sea garden that has sea live around the area, which has various seas live and still fresh. This area is suitable for the tourists who like to dive in the sea.

Dorume Beach

This beach is famous with its big wave. If the tourists like to have surfing, they can visit this beach on December. At that time, the wave in this Dorume beach can reach a certain height. The other scenery that can enjoy is its soft sand and seems brightness. It is because the Dorume beach has iron seeds

Talaga Biru

The society around call it as Talaga Biru, located in Mamuya village, Galela districts. It has clear water and blue colored, so that it called as Talaga Biru. Based on the legend, was said that the fairy who come from the fairyland often take a bath in this pool. The other uniquely of this pool is the leaves that down in this pool are always go to the side of the pool, so that it looks clear and clean.

Dodola Island

Dodola Island is surrounded by the wide of white sand that connect Dodola Besar Island and Dodola Kecil Island. The nature panorama around and the clear water are suitable for swimming and diving. There are also other islands that can visit by the tourists. Dodola beach is about 5 miles from Daruba, the capital of South Morotai districts.

 

Kupakupa Beach

The other uniquely of this beach is the strategic location that seems in the middle of bay so, it has quite seawater. It is ideal beach for sky, canoeing, swimming and fishing. Banyan tree that grow along the beach is also the panorama to be enjoyed. On Sunday, this place is very crowded, visited by a lot of visitors.

Kumo Beach

Kumo beach is located in Kumo Islands. It is the near beach from Tobelo. Its seawater is very clear and suitable for having canoeing, surfing, and swimming. From this place, you can enjoy Tobelo city face. There are small islands like Rorangane Island, Tulang Island, and Bawole Island, not far from this place. They offer the beautiful and unique panorama.

Jere Canon

Beside in Morotai, the historical objects in World War II also found in Kao and Galela area. Kao was the defense base of Japan army in Pacific area. The historical objects are 4 unique canon, 2 bunker, airlines, 3 ships (in Kusu village). There is 2 canon and airlines, in Pune village, Galela district.

Luari Beach

The beach with its white sandy and interesting nature panorama is located in Luari village, North Tobelo district. The location that across of Pacific Ocean is the interesting point of Luari beach. This place of ten used as swimming area by the tourists. The location is easy to reach by land transportion, 15 minutes from Tobelo.

Zumzum Island

The island with its high historical value is located just 3 miles in front of Daruba city. Zumzum is a small island with nature panorama, white sand beach. General Douglas Mc Arthur, the division leader of Asia Pacific group in World War II ever stayed in this island. The tourist still can see the cave; which ever become the center commando and the landing of amphibious.

Tobotobo Sea Garden

It is located Toboto village, Loloda district archipelago. This location has beautiful sea garden so, it very suitable location for having snorkeling or diving. In Tobotobo also has thousands bats that hang on the mangroves trees and also white and blue pigeon’s bath place.

Bobale Beach

Bobale beach is located in Bobale Island, Kao district. In around it, there is natural sea garden so; it usually visited by the visitor for having diving. This island also has completed bunker that the Japan’s historical object in World War II. Bobale Island can reach with speedboat from Daru village about 20 minutes.

Talaga Duma

Duma Lake is the biggest lake in North Halmahera, located in Galela districts and can reach from land about 45 minutes from Tobelo. Duma Lake offers beautiful natural panorama. The water is clear and calm, so that it suitable for having swimming, fishing and canoeing. There is also Talaga Makete, Talaga Likonano ad Talaga Kapupu, not far from this location.

 

Mamuya Hot Spring

Mamuya is located in Galela district. It is hot spring that comes from Mount Mamuya. The water is very hot and it’s suitable for soak. The societies around believe that Mamuya hot spring can injure many kinds skin diseases. This place is about 15 km from Tobelo city.

Kapaseti

The war cap is called ‘Kapasti’ by society around, is a gift from Sultan Ternate to King Momole. Beside the war cap, there are also the other equipments such as; sword, bottles fill of oil and wood root that band by red stuff and shell that usually used to war. These tools can meet in Soakonora village, Galela Barat district.

Somola Bay

In Somola Bay, the tourists can found small islands that has mangroves tree on the stones and blue seawater. In this area the tourists can canoeing and enjoy the beautiful of Somola. At certain time, many fish will enter this bay and stay at this bay. This beautiful area can reach with the ship from Pune beach, Galela district.

Padi Wangoira

One of the unique point that can fid in Wangongira village, West Tobelo is the rice plant that grew in fast river. The river named Molulu means slip. Based to the legend, when a grandma was back from her garden, she brought rice plant then, the grandma was split away. The rice plant then grew in that place till now

Restaurant, Accommodation and Souvenir

 

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